US-AU DTA: Article 14 – Independent Personal Services
In this week’s blog we will be discussing the tax implication of rendering Independent Personal Services as stipulated in Article 14 of the US/Australia DTA. Article 14 is luckily far less complex than our previous blogs.
The main purpose of Article 14 is to ensure that income derived by an individual who is a resident of the US or Australia from the performance of personal services in an independent capacity in the other country is taxed appropriately.
INTERPRETING ARTICLE 14 OF THE DTA – INDEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES
In terms of US domestic legislation, income earned by a non-resident individual for personal services rendered in the US which are of an independent nature is taxed at a flat rate of 30%.
Income derived by an individual who is a resident of either the US or Australia for rendering independent personal services in the other country will be taxed in that other country in which the services are performed if:
Article 14(a) – the recipient is present in that country for a period or periods aggregating more than 183 days in the year of income (or taxable year) of the country visited, or
Article 14(b) – that person has a ‘fixed base’ regularly available in that country for the purpose of performing their activities, and the income is attributable to activities exercised from that base.
Only the country of residence can tax this income if neither of the 2 tests above are met. The US Treasury Department noted that its understanding of the term fixed base is similar to the term permanent establishment.
Independent personal services include all personal services performed by an individual for their own account which includes any services performed as a partner in a partnership. This however does not include services performed as a director of a company which will be covered by Article 15 of the DTA – Dependent personal services.
Lastly, it is important to note that these personal services include all independent activities and are not limited to specific professions.
The interpretation by courts of Article 14 post COVID will be quite interesting as the way we conduct business has shifted significantly and could perhaps see an amendment to this article in the new future.