In this week’s blog, we will be discussing Article 4 of the DTA (Residence), with a specific focus on its applicability to individuals.

A person’s residence for treaty purposes is a key consideration when applying the DTA. Not only because this allows a person to claim certain treaty benefits, but also because the treaty will allocate taxing rights to the state of residence or the state of source. It is therefore vital to know where a person is resident for such purposes. 


Article 4 contains ‘residency tie-breakers’ to determine residence for both individuals and companies.

When the domestic law of the US and Australia result in claimed residency by both countries, the taxpayer must apply the treaty’s residency tie-breaker provisions. The reason it is important is because residency determines the taxation of many important types of income, such as dividends, interest, royalties, capital gain, pension distributions, retirement pay, annuities, and alimony.

It should be noted that these tiebreakers, for companies and individuals, apply for the purposes of the treaty and so determine a sole state as the place of residence for treaty purposes only. A person does not cease to be resident of either state for domestic law purposes unless the domestic law specifically states this

For instance, in South Africa, the definition of ‘resident’ in Article 1 of the Income Tax Act No. 58 of 1962 includes a provision whereby the definition of ‘residence’ contained in any DTA between South Africa and another country overrides the domestic definition of a resident. So, this is an example whereby a person will cease its residency should they be regarded as an exclusive resident of another contracting states. Herewith an extract of the provision – 

‘But does not include any person who is deemed to be exclusively a resident of another country for purposes of the application of any agreement entered into between the governments of the Republic and that other country for the avoidance of double taxation.’

This however does not apply to Article 4 of the DTA between the US and Australia. One should therefore be careful when applying Article 4 and what limitations apply to the specific DTA’s definition of residence. 


The country of residence generally gets the most exclusive taxing rights. When an individual is determined to be a tax resident under the domestic law of two countries that have an income tax treaty with one another, there are a set of factors that ‘break the tie’. When interpreting the specific terms as set out below, one should look at the domestic interpretation of the US/Australia respectively and at the OECD commentary on Article 4 of the Model Tax Convention.

The country of residency for purposes of the DTA is determined by applying the following tie-breaker clauses in the US-Australia DTA.

Tie-breaker 1: 

Permanent home – first, the country in which the individual maintains a permanent home. If the individual has a permanent home in only one of the Contracting States, the individual will be treated as a resident of that State for treaty purposes.

The IRS states that a permanent home is one that is retained for permanent and continuous use and is not a place retained for a short duration. An individual has a permanent home in the US if he or she purchased a home in the United States, intended to reside in that home for an indefinite time, and did reside in that home. Individuals may also have a permanent home where:

    1. a room/apartment is continuously available to them, 
    2. their personal property (e.g., automobiles, personal belongings) is stored at a dwelling, and 
    3. they conduct business (e.g., maintaining an office, registering a telephone), including using such addresses for insurance and a driver’s license.

The OECD describes a permanent home to be a home that the:

‘Individual has arranged to have the dwelling available to him at all times continuously and not occasionally’. 

We are the only multi-disciplinary international CPA firm in the United States that specializes in U.S.– Australia taxation.

Tie-breaker 2: 

Habitual abodesecond, if the individual’s permanent home cannot be determined, then the state in which he has a habitual abode

The IRS states the following in this regard:

“An individual’s habitual abode is located in the Contracting State in which the individual has a greater presence during a calendar year. Although the length of time is not specified, the comparison must cover sufficient length of time and take into account the intervals at which the stays take place for it to be possible to determine where residence is habitual. For example, an individual who is present in the United States more frequently and at longer intervals than in the other Contracting State during a calendar year likely has a habitual abode in the United States. Determine whether the individual has a habitual abode in the United States by calculating how much time the individual spent in in the United States in a tax year…” 

The OECD explains that a habitual abode refers to the frequency, duration and regularity of stays that are part of the settled routine of an individual’s life and is therefore more than transient. 

There is no specific commentary on the Australian interpretation of the words habitual abode in the context of the Treaty, only the words habitual place of abode in the context of the statutory definition of resident in section 6 ITAA 1936. However, the Courts consider the Commentary on the OECD Model Tax Convention as authoritative guidance on the interpretation of Tax Treaties.  

Tie-breaker 3: 

Closer connectionsthird, if the individual has a habitual abode in both countries or in neither, then the country in which the individual has closer economic or personal relations, with regard being given to the country of citizenship. 

The IRS considers the following factors in this regard:

Personal relations:

    1. Family location – Includes parents and siblings, and where the individual spent his or her childhood. 
    2. Recent relocation – Whether the family moved from their permanent home to join the individual, or the individual relocated to a second state (for example, as a result of marriage). 

Community relations

Determine where the individual has his or her:

    1. health insurance, 
    2. medical and dental professionals, 
    3. driver’s license/motor vehicle registration, 
    4. health club membership, 
    5. political and cultural activities, and 
    6. ownership of bank accounts. 

Economic relations: 

Determine where the individual:

    1. keeps his or her investments or conducts business, 
    2. incorporated his or her business, and retains professional advisors (e.g., attorneys, agents, and The center of vital interests can shift, when an individual retains ties in one State but establishes ties in a second State, and all surrounding facts and circumstances must be considered in determining the individual’s center of vital interests. For example, the IRS states that evidence that an individual has executed contracts relating to his or her business in the second State may indicate that the center of vital interests is in the second State. 


It is of utmost importance to ensure that you understand how to apply the tie-breaker provisions set out in Article 4(2) of the US/Australia DTA. Secondly, it is important to note that by being regarded as a resident in terms of the DTA, does not automatically cease your tax residency. Especially if you are a US citizen living in Australia. It should only be applied for purposes of the treaty and allocating the taxing rights accordingly. 

Our team of International Tax specialists at Asena Advisor, have an in-depth knowledge of how to interpret international tax treaties and how to correctly apply the tie-breaker provisions.

Shaun Eastman

Peter Harper